Terms Used by Marxism. Get XML access to reach the best products. x�b```b``f`a``wd�a@ f�(GB���7NKC_vM� London: Routledge, 2009. The English word games are: In Marxism, reification is the consideration of an abstraction or an object as if it had living existence and abilities; at the same time it implies the thingification of social relations. And this assumes a form which is the more real the more, on the one hand, their labour capacity is itself modified by these forms, so that it becomes powerless when it stands alone, i.e. 0000001507 00000 n It originally consisted of three related ideas: a philosophical anthropology, a theory of history, and an economic and political program. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame ! Marxism is a social, political, and economic theory originated by Karl Marx, which focuses on the struggle between capitalists and the working class. Quotations from Marx showing the use of the concept, Development and significance of the concept. Thus reification involves a distortion of consciousness, ranging from the rather innocent, to the grotesque. [clarification needed]. See more. In fact, communal unity in cooperation, combination in the division of labour, the application of the forces of nature and science, as well as the products of labour in the shape of machinery, are all things which confront the individual workers as alien, objective, and present in advance, without their assistance, and often against them, independent of them, as mere forms of existence of the means of labour which are independent of them and rule over them, in so far as they are objective; while the intelligence and volition of the total workshop, incarnated in the capitalist or his understrappers (representatives), in so far as the workshop is formed by the combination of the means of labour, confront the workers as functions of capital, which lives in the person of the capitalist. However, this error is certainly no greater than that of, e.g., all philologists who speak of the existence of capital in classical antiquity, and of Roman or Greek capitalists. The market wants this, the market wants that, but it's bigger than that. ", Floyd, Kevin: "Introduction: On Capital, Sexuality, and the Situations of Knowledge," in, Kangrga, Milan 1968: ‘Was ist Verdinglichung?’, Larsen, Neil: "Lukács sans Proletariat, or Can. They include the notion of economic determinism — that political and social structures are determined by the economic conditions of people. `���FQE��@���ȺHs17D��]a?��7�y��� 5N���8���X�� In Marxism, reification (German: Verdinglichung, . To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares. Typically it involves separating out something from the original context in which it occurs, and placing it in another context, in which it lacks some or all of its original connections yet seems to have powers or attributes which in truth it does not have. Marxism, a body of doctrine developed by Karl Marx and, to a lesser extent, by Friedrich Engels in the mid-19th century. Kiernan, Ralph Miliband (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983), pp. Commodities are use values which are produced and distributed entirely according to their exchange value. Reification is the tendency for individuals to ascribe a definitive value or form to an abstract concept. Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. [4], "[B]ecause as a result of their alienation as use-values all commodities are converted into linen, linen becomes the converted form of all other commodities, and only as a result of this transformation of all other commodities into linen does it become the direct reification of universal labour-time, i.e., the product of universal alienation and of the supersession of all individual labour." Althusser, Louis; "Marxism and Humanism" in, an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc. startxref Once hegemonic, commodity production – and derivative social mechanisms like money, markets, capital and wages – despite being historical, human products – became completely naturalised. Reification, the treatment of something abstract as a material or concrete thing, as in the following lines from Matthew Arnold’s poem “Dover Beach”: The Sea of Faith Was once, too, at the full, and round earth’s shore Lay like the folds of a bright girdle furled. This entry is from Wikipedia, the leading user-contributed encyclopedia. He is rather a means for them, partly to preserve their value, partly to valorise it, i.e. [2], Examples include the creation of false desires by the real labor of advertising. Contact Us Privacy policy After Marx, the concept was developed extensively by Georg Lukács in "Reification and the Consciousness of the Proletariat", part of his book History and Class Consciousness. Ordinary political economy, which concentrates only on the objects produced, forgets this entirely. In Marxist theory, reification is linked to people's alienation from work and their treatment as objects of manipulation rather than as human beings, and was popularized by György Lukács, but the term is given a variety of meanings by different schools of Marxist thought. On the one hand, people are seen as the creators of their material and mental world through their labour activity. Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more. 0000002573 00000 n 1928 (1972): Essays on Marx’s Theory of Value. Marxist criticism views literary works as reflections of the social institutions from which they originate. Latin res meaning "thing") or Versachlichung, literally "objectification"; regarding something impersonally) is the thingification of social relations or of those involved in them, to the extent that the nature of social relationships is expressed by the relationships between traded objects (see commodity fetishism and value-form). The concept is related to, but is distinct from, Marx's theories of alienation and commodity fetishism. English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU). x�bb�a`b``Ń3� 0 ��� They take on a “life” of their own, and constitute an objectiv… reification definition: 1. the act of changing something abstract (= existing as a thought or idea) into something real…. Gajo Petrović, A Dictionary of Marxist Thought, edited by Tom Bottomore, Laurence Harris, V.G. This is merely another way of saying that in Rome and Greece labor was free, an assertion which these gentlemen would hardly make. Marx argues that reification is an inherent and necessary characteristic of economic value such as it manifests itself in market trade, i.e. Alienation is not a uniquely Marxist concept, but Marx defined it as an inability to grasp the workings of history and subject them to human control. Reification definition is - the process or result of reifying. A Dictionary of Sociology Reification is the form that alienation takes under capitalism. Reification is a complex idea for when you treat something immaterial—like happiness, fear, or evil—as a material thing. The concept of reification has also been present in the works of the philosophers of the Frankfurt School, for example in Horkheimer and Adorno's Dialectic of Enlightenment, and in the works of Herbert Marcuse. 411-413; Berger, Peter, & Luckmann, Thomas. Reification is a society-wide process where one person assumes something is real that isn't. 234 0 obj<>stream In this video we'll be looking at Georgy Lukacs' concept of reification. ○   Lettris 0000000576 00000 n But the relation becomes still more complex—and apparently more mysterious—in that, with the development of the specifically capitalist mode of production, not only do these things—these products of labour, both as use values and as exchange values—stand on their hind legs vis-à-vis the worker and confront him as "capital"—but also the social forms of labour appear as forms of the development of capital, and therefore the productive powers of social labour, thus developed, appear as productive powers of capital. Find out more. outside this context of capitalism, and its capacity for independent production is destroyed, while on the other hand the development of machinery causes the conditions of labour to appear as ruling labour technologically too, and at the same time to replace it, suppress it, and render it superfluous in its independent forms. However, reification is often considered a sign that someone is thinking illogically. The doctrines of Karl Marx (see also Marx) and his associate Friedrich Engels on economics, politics, and society. The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata. French philosopher Louis Althusser criticized what he called the "ideology of reification" that sees 'things' everywhere in human relations". �����3��������'����A�����Y �R��J ���@(�2W3��h< e��D"�R@s����m7�8"�`���RL Learn more. 0000001741 00000 n Choose the design that fits your site. A Definition of Objectification. Others who have written about this point include Gajo Petrović, Raya Dunayevskaya, Raymond Williams, Timothy Bewes, Axel Honneth, John Zerzan, and Slavoj Žižek. The real history of the concept of reification begins with Marx and with Lukács’s interpretation of Marx. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. xref 0000003541 00000 n Reification definition, the act of treating something abstract, such as an idea, relation, system, quality, etc., as if it were a concrete object:Defining “home” as if it were just a roof over one’s head, instead of the center of a web of relationships, leads in turn to the reification of homelessness. 0000001350 00000 n Reification is a ‘special’ case of ALIENATION, its most radical and widespread form characteristic of modern capitalist society. ... “Reification and the Class Consciousness of the Proletariat” the concept of reification as being a consequence of Marx ... A Dictionary of Marxist … Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites ! 0000000016 00000 n As such social forces they are "capitalised" vis-à-vis labour. The concept of capital implies that the objective conditions of labor—and these are its own product—acquire a personality as against labor, or what amounts to the same thing, that they are established as the property of a personality other than the worker's. Reification is grounded in the universal production of commodities, or commodity fetishism. They therefore confront the workers as shapes of capital itself, as combinations which, unlike their isolated labour capacities, belong to capital, originate from it and are incorporated within it. [citation needed]. Even this relation in its simplicity is a personification of things and a reification of persons. Like you say about nature, we think about "the market". Each square carries a letter. ○   Boggle. Rubin, I. I. Were the term capital to be applicable to classical antiquity—though the word does not actually occur among the ancients (but among the Greeks the word arkhais is used for what the Romans called the principalis summa reicreditae, the principal of a loan)—then the nomadic hordes with their flocks on the steppes of Central Asia would be the greatest capitalists, for the original meaning of the word capital is cattle." Here a financial institution reifies its services as tangible merchandise-like packages. endstream endobj 222 0 obj<>/Metadata 52 0 R/PieceInfo<>>>/Pages 48 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/OCProperties<>/StructTreeRoot 54 0 R/Type/Catalog/LastModified(D:20070503133035)/PageLabels 46 0 R>> endobj 223 0 obj<>/PageElement<>>>/Name(HeaderFooter)/Type/OCG>> endobj 224 0 obj<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>/Type/Page>> endobj 225 0 obj<> endobj 226 0 obj<> endobj 227 0 obj<> endobj 228 0 obj<> endobj 229 0 obj<> endobj 230 0 obj<> endobj 231 0 obj<>stream It is perceiving or regarding something other than for what it was originally intended. THE FOLLOWING TERMS are presented in alphabetical order; however, someone beginning to learn Marxism and neo-Marxism needs to stay conscious of the fact that each major theorist uses particular terms in his or her particular way. "making into a thing") is the process by which social relations are perceived as inherent attributes of the people involved in them, or attributes of some product of the relation, such as a traded commodity.. Marxist literary criticism is a loose term describing literary criticism based on socialist and dialectic theories. The first necessary move in this process is, as we have seen, that the commodities set apart a specific commodity, say, gold, which becomes the direct reification of universal labour-time or the universal equivalent." Specifically, reification may refer to: Concretization, or making less abstract or less generalized; Reification (computer science), making a data model for a previously abstract concept Reification (fallacy), fallacy of treating an abstraction as if it were a real thing <<7B202823C9C67A4BBA615BFDD10EC41F>]>> [6], "Capital employs labour. The idea of some socialists, that we need capital but not capitalists, is completely false. 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