The genus Aspergillus consists of 250 recognizable species. Identification of species in Aspergillus section Flavi based on sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetic, PCR protocol: A guide to methods and applications, Molecular Identification and Characterisation of, PCR-Based assays for the identification of enniatin-producing, Changes in the organic compounds following sun drying of edible black ant (, Main trends and research results at the unit of technology, Enhanced β-mannanase production from alternative sources by recombinant, Colour and antioxidant properties of malvidin-3-glucoside and Vitisin A, Make a choice! Here, we sequence 19 genomes spanning section Flavi and compare 31 fungal genomes including 23 Flavi species. Aspergillus flavus is a pathogenic fungus in the phylum Ascomycota. spelta L. Thell) – has received growing production interest due to its superior nutritional and pro-health properties. The organism is a circular vesicle, with protruding filamentous extensions (2). Additionally, levels of aflatoxin in treated crops dropped significantly. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in maize harvested in Serbia during 2009–2012, Toxigenic potential of Aspergillus flavus cultures isolated from wheat grains, Proceedings of the III International Congress “Food Technology, First report of Aspergillus flavus on organic spelt wheat in Serbia, Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in Triticum species inoculated with Aspergillus flavus, An outbreak of Aspergillus species in response to environmental conditions in Serbia, Identification of pathogenic Aspergillus species by a PCR-restriction enzyme method, PCR-RFLP on β-tubulin gene for rapid identification of the most clinically important species of Aspergillus, Phylogenetic analysis of Aspergillus species using DNA sequences from four loci, An improved medium for the detection of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, Identification and characterization of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins, Communicating current research and educational topics and trends in applied microbiology, A polyphasic approach to the identification of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from Portuguese almonds, PCR-restriction fragment length analysis of aflR gene for differentiation and detection of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus in maize, Statıstıcal Yearbook of the Republıc of Serbıa. A. flavus cultures isolated from common wheat and spelt grain samples were collected during the three-year period (2015–2017) in Northern Serbia. , 2013; Janıć-Hajnal et al., 2017). Centraal bureau voor Schimmel cultures, Utrecht. Aspergillus is a filamentous, cosmopolitan and ubiquitous fungus found in nature. It is commonly isolated from soil, plant debris, and indoor air environment. In cell cultures, A. flavus are known to grow as yellow-green colonies and are 65-70 mm in diameter on Czapek yeast extract (1). It is a plant, animal and human pathogen. 1991. } It can infect many important agricultural crops, leading to yield losses that have been reported to be worth millions of dollars [2]. Aspergillus flavus is a very common and well-known species of fungus. The PCR products, amplified by the primers ITS1/ITS4, were digested with the HhaI and MwoI (HpyF10VI) enzymes (Thermo Scientific, USA). 2007. .item06 { The fungus is also an opportunistic animal and human pathogen causing aspergillosis diseases with incidence increasing in the immunocompromised population. Meth., 117, 144–147. background: #f57822; Aspergillus, genus of fungi in the order Eurotiales (phylum Ascomycota, kingdom Fungi) that exists as asexual forms (or anamorphs) and is pathogenic (disease-causing) in humans. Bowman S.M. Kos, J., Mastılovıć, J., Hajnal, E.J. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) is a simple, cost effective and quick tool for rapid detection of specific differences in DNA sequences of Aspergillus species (Somashekar et al., 2004). A reliable and accurate identification of the fungi is of great importance for evaluating the microbiological risks of contamination. Images library; Medical and Patient education videos; Specific Patients; Video clips (Cell biology) Flickr galleries; eANOFEL images; Aspergillus flavus. Kernels and fruit which have been damaged by insects can be easily infected by A.flavus. Production of aflatoxins B1 and B2 occurs primarily in plants, especially B1 within cotton seeds and corn kernels (9). sub cultured onto Aspergillus flavus parasiticus agar as described by [15], and incubated in the dark at 28C for ... Morphological Characteristics of Aspergillus Species The colour of the colonies was used for first identification of the sections. (Ed.) 315–322. Contamination by A. flavus is detrimental to crops because of A. flavus’ ability to produce Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a toxin that can cause liver damage in both human and animals (8). AKJournals is the trademark of Akadémiai Kiadó's journal publishing business branch. The essential point of the present investigation was molecular characterisation and identification of A. flavus isolates originating from common wheat and spelt grains collected after harvest during the period of three years (2015–2017) in Northern Serbia. soy sauce). Aspergillus niger causes black mold of foodstuffs; A. flavus, A. niger, and A. fumigatus cause aspergillosis in humans. A. flavus also has a great impact on human health, in which immunosuppressed people are most susceptible to infection by this fungus (1). Regarding literature data, the use of restriction enzymes indicated the possibility of clear distinguishment of A. parasiticus and A. flavus. VeA, LaeA, and VelB form a heterotrimer, known as the Velvet Complex, in the nucleus to control fungal development and secondary metabolite production (4). Colony morphology of A. flavus isolates (PDA, 7 days, 25 °C) A: ATCC® 9643 reference strain, B: isolate Acc.No. Highly aerobic in nature Plant and insect fragments are also sites of inoculation during postharvest, which further help A.flavus survive throughout the winter and results in recurring infection. The secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters responsible for the production of aflatoxin consists of 25 genes, spanning 70 kb DNA sections located near the telomere of the third chromosome (4). A. flavus also has a great impact on human health, in which immunosuppressed people are most susceptible to infection by this fungus (1). Bajadoz, Formatex. Novi Sad, Serbia, 418–423. C. ambrosioides was chosen as a counteragent for the fungi because of its prevalence as a weed throughout India and elsewhere (11). Much of the current research into A. flavus focuses on preventing crop damage and other diseases caused by the fungus. Mycol., 47, S13–S20. Applied Microbiology Biotechnology. The hyphae of A. flavus are partitioned by a septum and are hyaline, giving them a glossy appearance (2). J. Appl. An intense orange colour was observed for all tested isolates (Figs 1A and 1B). margin: 0; Statıstıcal Yearbook of the Republıc of Serbıa (2018): Chapter Agriculture. Growth is rapid and colonies appear downy or powdery in texture. Phytopathology. Aspergillus flavus (yellow pigment) Aspergillus terreus; Aspergillus fumigatus cause infections of the skin, eyes and ears, and other organs; fungus ball in the lungs, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Gel image of the electrophoretically separated PCR products digested with restriction enzymes: A: HhaI-RFLP of ITS-PCR products; B: MwoI-RFLP of ITS-PCR products; L: 25-1000 bp DNA ladder. Read also: Aspergillus flavus Habitat of Aspergillus niger. 365–371. A. flavus inhabits a broad range of environments. Gel image for AlwI is not shown. "Reduction in Aflatoxin Content of Maize by Atoxigenic Strains of Aspergillus flavus". This section also includes A. parasiticus. Taking into account that morphological characters could be very volatile depending on the media and culture properties, misclassification of fungal species including Aspergillus spp. Expression of aflatoxin is upregulated when AflR is bound to the promoter of the aflatoxin gene (4). J. Microbiol. Other articles where Aspergillus parasiticus is discussed: cancer: Initiators: …the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, which grow on improperly stored grains and peanuts. This species is known primarily for its ability to produce a potent toxin and carcinogen known as aflatoxin (1). Two A. flavus isolates collected from wheat in 2015 have shown the potential for aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis (Krulj et al., 2016). 1. Whıte, T.J., Burns, T., Lee, S. & Taylor, J.W. 1989. During previous years, regarding the shifts in climate conditions in temperate region, such as occurrence of high temperatures and prolonged drought, increased occurrence frequencies of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins in cereal grains were recorded. Those results were in accordance with studies of Nasrı and co-workers (2015) and Baroševıć and co-workers (2016). & Šarıć, B. and S.J. pp. The digestion was heat-terminated at 80 °C for 20 min after incubation performed with MwoI, while the thermal inactivation to PCR products digested with the HhaI was not applied. .item05 { In order to provide a more holistic approach, molecular characterisation of 38 Aspergillus isolates obtained from wheat and spelt grains over the three-year period in Northern Serbia was done. Aspergillus flavus ATCC ® 9643™ Designation: SN 3 [Aust. background: #f9a46e; After A. fumigatus, A. flavus is the second most common cause of aspergillosis of the lung. Moreover, AflS, a regulatory protein expressed by aflS, takes an important role in aflatoxin biosynthesis by acting as a transcriptional enhancer or co-activator of AflR (4). This common mould is involved in many industrial processes including enzymes (e.g. Copyright Akadémiai Kiadó AKJournals is the trademark of Akadémiai Kiadó's journal publishing business branch. In general, morphological characteristics are still widely used for identification of Aspergillus as this method is essential to categorize the isolates according to groups or sections, which allows further identification by other … LaeA is shown to be involved in the conversion of heterochromatin, where gene expression is suppressed, to euchromatin, where gene expression is promoted (5). Crops including maize, peanuts, and Payne, G. a less to... Increased germination and proliferation and dullness of affected areas is often seen and increase of fungal.! 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