The absence of a secure theoretical grounding severely limits our understanding of authoritarianism. Daily group prayers contribute to bonding groups together while providing the individual with an identity. Studies based on APT have shown that prejudice is related to the outlook of the people who hold such views rather than to … The authoritarian personality is a psychological syndrome of traits that correlates highly with outgroup prejudice. The concept of authoritarianism has been widely misunderstood because of both confusion about values and science and disagreement about a definition of the concept within different areas of psychology. authoritarian personality: a cluster of personality traits reflecting a desire for security and order, for example, rigidity, highly conventional outlook, unquestioning obedience, scapegoating, desire for structured lines of authority. The analysis offered in Authoritarian Nightmare is based on two distinct psychometric measures developed by different traditions of social psychologists that have been used and refined over several decades. John Levi Martin Department of Sociology Rutgers-The State University of New Jersey Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, and Sanford's The Authoritarian Personality is probably the most deeply flawed work of prominence in political psychology. Research in cognitive and social psychology has focused on linking scores on authoritarianism scales with social behavior or information processing, but these efforts have not been very successful at … The authoritarian personality is a personality type characterized by extreme obedience and unquestioning respect for and submission to the authority of a person external to the self, which is realized through the oppression of subordinate people. Sociological Theories of Prejudice and Racism. Thus, authoritarians hold a rigidly hierarchical view of the world. 1950) proposed a psychodynamic theory of prejudice and ideology that was intended to explain why economic frustration brought on by World War I and the Great Depression … n. A personality pattern reflecting a desire for security, order, power, and status, with a desire for structured lines of authority, a conventional set of values or outlook, a demand for unquestioning obedience, and a tendency to be hostile toward or use as scapegoats individuals of minority or nontraditional groups. Theodor W. Adorno (/ ə ˈ d ɔːr n oʊ /; German: [ˈteːodoːɐ̯ ʔaˈdɔɐ̯no]; born Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund; September 11, 1903 – August 6, 1969) was a German philosopher, sociologist, psychologist, musicologist, and composer known for his critical theory of society.. The Authoritarian Personality, 50 Years Later: What Lessons Are There for Political Psychology? Fifty years after the publication of The Authoritarian Personality, the empirical literature on authoritarianism continues to grow even though there is no widely accepted theory to account for the phenomenon. a distinct personality pattern that is characterized by (a) a preoccupation with power and status, (b) strict adherence to simplified conventional values, (c) an attitude of great deference to authority figures while demanding subservience from those regarded as lower in status, and (d) hostility toward minorities or other outgroups and to people who deviate from conventional moral prescriptions. 43 cards | Created by shayes3 | Last updated: Sep 17, 2015 | Total Attempts: 2 -+ View. In The Authoritarian Personality, one of the most influential and widely debated works in the history of social science, Theodor W. Adorno, Else Frenkel-Brunswik, Daniel J. Levinson, and R. Nevitt Sanford (Adorno, et al. Conceptually, the term authoritarian personality originated from the writings of Erich Fromm, and usually is applied to men and women who exhibit a strict and oppressive personality towards their subordinates. The Authoritarian Personality may shed some light on this. During the mid-1940s, researchers first developed theories that racism is also an inherent part of an authoritarian personality. Christopher Vials. Origins of the Term . Three personality traits in particular characterize the syndrome: deference to authorities, aggression toward outgroups, and rigid adherence to cultural conventions. (1950) proposed that prejudice is the results of an individual’s personality type. Adorno et al. Sociology Test! People with authoritarian personalities tend to see society as hierarchical, which people who are naturally superior having the right to power over others. In his book, The Authoritarian Personality (1950), psychologist Theodor Adorno (in the foreground on the right of this photo) concluded that excessively strict authoritarian parenting caused children to feel immense anger towards their parents, but instead of confronting their … Authoritarian personality theory has an empirical scale known as the RWA measure which strongly predicts a substantially similar set of group level sociopolitical behaviours such as prejudice and ethnocentrism that the Social dominance scale predicts, despite the scales being largely independent of each other. Under certain circumstances (situational factors), the just mentioned attitudes can lead to discrimination, So according to this theory, racial prejudice is heightened when an authoritarian personality feels there's … Social science scholars have identified a number of features of authoritarianism in its ideal type form. (1950) developed a questionnaire called the California F scale, to measure levels of authoritarian personality. Adorno et al. The term scapegoat has Biblical origins, coming from the Book of Leviticus. The first is a scale measuring "social dominance orientation" (SDO) and the second is a scale measuring "right-wing authoritarianism" (RWA). The authoritarian personality describes a type of person who prefers a social system with a strong ruler—the authoritarian person is comfortable being the strong ruler but if the individual is not the strong ruler then he or she will demonstrate complete obedience to another strong authority figure. It has long been believed that the theories constructed by Western psychologists (mainly psychologists in North America) are universal. Before the emergence of Chinese indigenous psychology, the authoritarian personality was used as a framework for understanding Chinese authoritarian orientation. Functionalist theory argues that for race and ethnic relations to be functional and thus contribute to the harmonious conduct and stability of society, racial and ethnic minorities must assimilate into that society. Authoritarianism is one of the three main types of political systems (or regimes), democracy and totalitarianism being the other two. And of course they all have the "Great Satan" to hate. Interactions with Authoritarian personality theory. The theory of an authoritarian personality was an influential though controversial mid-twentieth-century theory to explain the mass appeal of fascism and ethnocentrism. Authoritarian personality theory (APT), based in psychodynamic theory, was developed to explain these behaviors and their psychological underpinnings. authoritarian personality Source: A Dictionary of Sociology Author(s): John Scott, Gordon Marshall. To maintain safety, the child idealizes the parents, leaving no outlet for the unacceptable primitive impulses of sex and aggression. They piloted and developed a questionnaire, which they called the F-scale (F for fascism). The clearest influence of psychoanalytic theory, the authoritarian personality theory (Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, and Sanford) proposed that rigid, punitive, status-conscious child-rearing practices reinforce unquestioning, duty-bound, hierarchical-oriented obedience. An authoritarian personality tends to be more ethnocentric. Scapegoat theory is used in sociology and psychology as one way to intercept conflict and prejudice between individuals and groups. A specific, middle-range social-psychological theory of the authoritarian personality-namely, that the degree of so-called authoritarianism manifested by a particular individual is, on the average, negatively correlated with the number of social roles he has mastered-is suggested to meet the deficiencies in current theories. Conflict theory Culture theory Scapegoat theory Authoritarian personality from SOCIOLOGY 101 at Sophia University Institute In the book, a goat was sent into the desert carrying the sins of the community. Adorno argued that deep-seated personality traits predisposed some individuals to be highly sensitive to totalitarian and antidemocratic ideas and therefore were prone to be highly prejudicial. In Milgram’s original research, psychologists questioned whether the obedience occurred due to situational factors, for example, uniform and location, or dispositional factors, such as a particular personality characteristic. An individual with this type of personality is often unwavering and critical, with a superstitious and unfailing belief that a power larger than him or herself is governing fate. Authoritarian Personality Theory One theory of political violence which has undergone something of a revival in recent years is the always controversial ‘authoritarian personality’ theory. Social-psychological explanations of prejudice emphasize authoritarian personalities and frustration, while sociological explanations emphasize social learning and group threat. Although cross-cultural comparisons indicated that Chinese people had higher scores on authoritarian personality (measured by F scale) than did Westerners (Singh et al., 1962; Meade and Whittaker, 1967), these studie… This work of sociology was written in the postwar years as an attempt to understand what it was that made ordinary people support and beli One of the themes in my debut novel, Heart of Cruelty, was how an … IN THE EARLY post-World War II years, antifascism’s most intricate, intersectional analysis of the political right came from a highly influential work within the academic social sciences: The Authoritarian Personality (1950, reissued 1982), by Theodor Adorno and University of California-Berkeley psychologists Else Frenkel-Brunswik, Daniel Levinson and Nevitt Sanford. ... Authoritarian personality (prejudice) The "archie bunker" theory; "all in the family" example . … The ideal criteria may not be present in practice in actually existing authoritarian systems. 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